Cyberbullying can work in the same way as bullying in the playground: the victim feels frightened and alone, while the bully tries to hide from being caught. They may advertise for information on the Internet, or hire a private detective. Cyberstalking is considered to be the most dangerous category of Internet harassment, because cyberstalking generally includes a "credible threat of harm," according to the National Conference of State Legislatures. I never gave much thought to the victims of cyberstalking until I became one. There have been thousands of cyber-stalking cases reported in the US alone. § 223. Criminal Code 13A-6-90 states that anyone who ”repeatedly follows or harasses another person and who makes a threat, either expressed or implied, with the intent to place that person in reasonable fear of death or serious bodily harm is guilty of the crime of stalking in the first degree.” According to national figures, victims of cyber-stalking are often females during the college ages of 18-29, but women are not the only targets. If you're wondering how to protect yourself against cyberstalking & online harassment, look no further. This is why cyber-stalking prevention should be the top priority of internet users and governments alike. Modern technology has changed the way we live our lives mostly for the better. You may be wondering what is direct attacks and proxy. Stalking is a continuous process, consisting of a series of actions, each of which may be entirely legal in itself. There are many ways through which cyber-stalkers can exploit their victims. The first anti-stalking law was enacted in 1990 in the state of California. [25], Mental profiling of digital criminals has identified psychological and social factors that motivate stalkers as: envy; pathological obsession (professional or sexual); unemployment or failure with own job or life; intention to intimidate and cause others to feel inferior; the stalker is delusional and believes he/she "knows" the target; the stalker wants to instill fear in a person to justify his/her status; belief they can get away with it (anonymity); intimidation for financial advantage or business competition; revenge over perceived or imagined rejection. Cyberstalking is the use of the Internet or other electronic means to stalk or harass an individual, group, or organization. Although there are often existing laws that prohibit stalking or harassment in a general sense, legislators sometimes believe that such laws are inadequate or do not go far enough, and thus bring forward new legislation to address this perceived shortcoming. As members reinforce each others' beliefs, they fail to see themselves as individuals and lose a sense of personal responsibility for their destructive acts. Mullen, Paul E.; Pathé, Michele; Purcell, Rosemary (2000). [31] Cyberstalkers may research individuals to feed their obsessions and curiosity. However, it’s not explicitly covered under federal law. Cyberstalking involves using electronic means, including the Internet, to stalk or harass a person or group of people Cyberstalking is the use of the Internet or other electronic means to stalk or harass an individual, group, or organization. They may claim the victim has harmed the stalker or his/her family in some way, or may post the victim's name and telephone number in order to encourage others to join the pursuit. [3] Both are motivated by a desire to control, intimidate or influence a victim. 1. Alabama Code Title 13A. There have been a number of attempts by experts and legislators to define cyberstalking. [2] Cyberstalking may also include monitoring, identity theft, threats, vandalism, solicitation for sex, or gathering information that may be used to threaten or harass. In 2007 a group of anonymous individuals attacked Sierra, threatening her with rape and strangulation, publishing her home address and Social Security number, and posting doctored photographs of her. Starting off, let’s take a look at how cyber-stalkers target their victims. A lot of our social life is semi-public nowadays, on social websites like Twitter & Facebook. Cyberstalking is a criminal practice where an individual uses the Internet to systematically harass or threaten someone. Random attacks – the victim being in the wrong place at the wrong time Threats don't necessarily have … While some sites specialize in laws that protect victims age 18 and under, current and pending cyberstalking-related United States federal and state laws offer help to victims of all ages. Cyberstalking can take many forms, including: CyberAngels has written about how to identify cyberstalking:[8]. Create malicious websites, fake social media profiles, and blogs about you. Victims usually pick up or run into an offender on such platforms. [19], Cyberstalking of intimate partners is the online harassment of a current or former romantic partner. [32] More commonly they will post defamatory or derogatory statements about their stalking target on web pages, message boards, and in guest books designed to get a reaction or response from their victim, thereby initiating contact. Cyberstalking can occur in chat rooms, message boards, discussion forums, emails, text messages, and on social networking sites; basically anywhere there is access to electronic communication devices. The judge ruled that he believes Ravi acted out of "colossal insensitivity, not hatred. Once they get a reaction from the victim, they will typically attempt to track or follow the victim's internet activity. Attempts to gather information about the victim: Cyberstalkers may approach their victim's friends, family and work colleagues to obtain personal information. Shortly after that encounter, another man called her and pretty much said the same thing. Cyberstalking and cyberbullying are relatively new phenomena, but that does not mean that crimes committed through the network are not punishable under legislation drafted for that purpose. K.K. [1] It may include false accusations, defamation, slander and libel. The stalker might be a stranger or someone you know. In this day and age, you don’t even have to own a computer to become a victim of cyber-stalking. Delusional or imagined attachment to the victim, be it romantic or another connection 1. This crime can be perpetrated through email, social media, chat rooms, instant messaging clients and any other online medium. After her suicide in 2010 all charges were dropped against the man who allegedly raped her, on the basis that the only witness was dead. Cyberstalking can happen on social media, public forums, instant messaging apps, and through email. Cole (2015). You’ll find cyberstalking happening on social networks, chat forums, and even websites where comments are left. There’s a lot more to know about it and how cyberstalking works and how to guard you against it. When it comes to persecution and punishment, law enforcement agencies hands are usually tied due to insufficient evidence. [24], A notable example of online mob harassment was the experience of American software developer and blogger Kathy Sierra. [31] Moreover, many physical stalkers will use cyberstalking as another method of harassing their victims. According to a study by Kowalksi, of 3,700 bullied middle-school students, a quarter had been subjected to a form of harassment online. The work of survivors like Moulds and Bowater has been pioneering. In the US, cyberstalking is considered a criminal offense. Here are some interesting facts. In doing so they dehumanize their victims, becoming more aggressive when they believe they are supported by authority figures. over the internet. 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